Navegando por Tipo de Documento The present work transits between the areas of mathematical education and early childhood education. It is inserted in the field of geometry with a focus on the children’s spatial sense. It resulted from research conducted with a group of children between 4 and 6 years of a kindergarten in a school of Serra-ES. It analyzed evidences of the spatial sense of children in a child education class, who emerged in their interactions, jokes and tasks in the school space. Three specific objectives developed from the cited aim, such as: (1) investigate the spatial relations evidenced by the children, through their speeches, gestures and maps, while interacting in the school space; (2) to verify articulations between the evidenced spatial relations and spatial orientation and spatial visualization abilities of the children of the class; and, finally (3), to analyze the geometric and spatial characteristics that children show in both the production and reading, interpretation and use of maps of the school space. This interpretative study was followed a qualitative research approach. The research process was organized in three phases to achieve the objectives listed. The first consisted of conducting bibliographic studies for theoretical support, mapping of scientific productions about the theme and helding the first meetings with the children of the children's education class. In the second phase, a teaching experiment was conducted with a set of tasks that instrumented the study. Participant observation, proposed tasks and interviews were set up in data collection techniques. The record of this empirical information was made through notes in field journals, photographs, audio recordings and video recordings. These last two, as well as the interviews, were transcribed for further discussion and data analysis. Listening to children conceived as subjects of law, historical and social, who act and transform the space around permeated the entire process of investigation. The last phase consisted of a careful retrospective analysis of the data. In it, the categories of analysis and the composition of the research episodes were established based on the teaching experiment carried out. Among the categories of analysis related to the spatial sense are: (a) spatial orientation, (b) spatial visualization, (c) external representations through maps, gestures and speeches, (d) representational correspondence, (e) geometric correspondence and (f) self-space-map relation. The research carried out pointed out that in the interactions between the children of the study, and of them with adults, with objects and places in the school space, a "geometry of these children" emerges which through maps, gestures and speeches make evident children's spatial sense. They revealed their abilities of spatial orientation and spatial visualization in the relations of location, position, direction, distance and perspective. Such spatial relationships were evidenced by these children in the representational and geometric correspondences, as well as in the self-space-map relation that constituted, represented and modified in the context of their interactions in the school space. The study also indicated that there are critical points to be thought about the development of children's spatial sense such as (i) location and direction from reference points, (ii) map alignment and physical and mental rotation movements, (iii) right and left relationships. It suggests that this "geometry of children" becomes the basis of a "geometry for children" in the early childhood education.

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2019-02-26Sentido espacial de crianças na educação infantil : entre mapas, gestos e falasZogaib, Simone Damm