Análise da ecoeficiência de um sistema de transporte público urbano de passageiros

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Bermond, Vinicius
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Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
The Brazilian`s public transportation system transports over 336 million people per month in nine main cities within the country. For this reason, it is important to analyze the environmental impact of diesel and alternative fuels use to achieve environmental standards, always looking for life quality improvement. This paper proposes a methodology based on the World Business Council of Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (2000) to evaluate public transportation eco-efficiency by key performance indicators that measure the product value (V) and environmental influence (E) by the equation: ECO = V/E. These indicators can be adjusted to calculate the total energy consumption, the total emission of carbon dioxide, the total emission of each greenhouse gas, the total cost of the fuels, among others. The methodology was applied to the Metropolitan Region of Vitória (MRV) that has an integrated public transportation system called Transcol. This system transported over 190 million people in 2014 through more than 120 million kilometers travelled and serves six largest cities in the state of Espírito Santo: Vitória, Vila Velha, Serra, Cariacica, Viana and Guarapari. Transcol has a bus fleet of 1,724 vehicles, 15 different types of buses with a mean capacity of 37 seats. Different scenarios were developed representing different fuel sources from diesel oil to greener ones, such as biodiesel and electric source and different engine technologies for the buses. These scenarios were tested, analyzed and evaluated by nine indicators: emissions of Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrous oxide (NOx), Particulate Matter (PM), Hydrocarbons (NMHC), fuel consumption (COC), operating cost (COP), fuel cost (CCO) and cost of fleet renewal (CRF). The methodology showed that the bus fleet can obtain significant savings and lower emissions of CO2, NOx the use of biodiesel provides a reduction of greenhouse gases and sulfur emissions, although it can be more expensive and lacks adequate distribution structure. However, the use of biodiesel instead of diesel is better because it pollutes less, even though the consumption is bigger than in others fuels.
Eco-efficiency , Passenger Public Transportation , Atmospheric pollution , Ecoeficiência , Transporte público de passageiros , Poluição Atmosférica
BERMOND, Vinicius. Análise da ecoeficiência de um sistema de transporte público urbano de passageiros. 2015. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Civill) - Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro Tecnológico, Vitória, 2015.