Agrotóxicos em alimentos no Espírito Santo: ações passadas e perspectivas futuras

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Barbosa, Flávia Maria de Lima
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Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the panorama of the use of pesticides from data on the monitoring of residues in foods consumed in Espírito Santo and perspectives of reduction of their use. The data used were obtained from the laboratory analysis of food samples collected in Espirito Santo from 2009 to 2015 by the Agrochemical Waste Analysis Program in Food, coordinated by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. A bibliographic survey was also carried out in the scientific literature and in official documents of governmental and non-governmental institutions related to health, environment, agriculture, economy and education, of proposals for actions that could compose an intersectoral plan to reduce the use of pesticides. The data on the monitoring of pesticide residues in 978 samples of 24 foods of plant origin participated in the first analysis. The frequency of satisfactory results was always greater than that of unsatisfactory results in the period studied, being 78% satisfactory and 22% unsatisfactory throughout the period. Among the samples with the highest percentage of unsatisfactoriness, pepper (81%), zucchini (75%) and grape (49%) stood out. Among the foods most consumed by the state population, active ingredients toxicological class I (extremely toxic) and toxicological class II (highly toxic) were detected that were not authorized for the crops and above the maximum residue limit. In the search for proposals for actions to reduce the use of pesticides was found a total of 61 proposals of actions, referring to the thematic axes registration; control, monitoring and accountability of the entire production chain; economic and financial measures; development of alternatives; information, participation and social control, and training and capacity building, revealing a commonly partitioned approach on the subject, little considering the multifaceted and intersectorial vision that it demands. Many proposals for action have indicated the urgency of disincentive and non-use of pesticides and the transition from conventional production to integrated, organic or agroecological production as a solution to obtain healthier foods, contributing to the health of people and the environment. The unsatisfactory results found regarding the monitoring of residues of pesticides in foods go against the right to food and nutritional security, since the necessary safety tests for the use of the active ingredient in the culture where it is not allowed have not been done, representing risk to the health of the worker and the consumer. The monitoring of pesticides in food should be expanded, based on the measures available to address the problems encountered and increasing risk communication. In addition, research shows, in practice, that moving to a model to produce sustainably is feasible. In order to do so, it is proposed to implement the proposed actions in this study, involving the competent entities involved in each of them, as a starting point for the implementation of an intersectoral management plan to reduce the use of pesticides.
Agrochemicals , Monitoring , Intersectorial action , Management , Sustainable agriculture , Agrotóxicos , Monitoramento , Ação intersetorial , Gestão , Agricultura sustentável